Tmogvi Fortress was hard to get place and the main fortress city of Georgia. It is located on the highland mountain surrounded by deep ravines from the both sides. Fortress had controlled trade road connected this area with Western Asia. The first time fortress was mentioned in the historical data of X century. In 914 Arab invaders with the Abul-Kasim, who was sent by Bagdad Khalif, try to take over the fortress and they failed. For the next time Tmogvi was mentioned in historical sources of XI century as a place of gatehouse and the death of Kladjeti, Sumbara and Gurgena rulers who had been defeated by Georgian King Bagrat the III. From 1073 fortress was in the properties of Kuabulidze dukes.
In 1191 famous queen Tamara gifted Tmogvi to her courtiers Sargis Mkhargzeli-Zakaryan. He was born here and carry on his activity here. Family of Mkhargdzeli-Zakaryan rule here for more than hundred years. Here was carried out some battle between Queen Tamara army and army of “Russian George” ex-husband of the queen. Further fortress was in the property of Toreli, Djakeli and Shalikashvili. In 1578 fortress was took over by Osman Imperia. As a result of Russian-Turkish war during 1828-1829 had been agreed by Andreanapol Agreement that Osman Imperia to return among with another territories a Tmogvi fortress too. And it became a property of Russian Imperia.
Upper and lower part of the fortress was tied by secret tunnel which lead to the river. Tunnel has vertical direction which is an amazing thing. It is hard to image how ancient citizens use this tunnel because it is very difficult to use this tunnel. Church of Saint Ephraim is rocked over the rocky massive in the ravine from the west side. In the ruins of the second church remained frescoes of wall-painting of XIII century. Ruins of the former settlements, temples and bridges remains on the both side of river Kura. One bridge connect to each other temples, another one was for vehicle. Fortress city was ruined by earthquake in 30ies and 60ies of XIII century.
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